Architrave: In classical architecture it is a main beam resting across the tops of columns or it is the moulded frame around a doorway or window.
Awning: A metal frame clad with fabric attached over a window, door, porch opening or storefront to provide protection from the weather.
Baluster: One of a series of short vertical posts, often ornamental, used to support a rail.
Balustrade: A railing with supporting balusters.
Bay: A regularly repeating division of a façade, marked by fenestration.
Bay Window: A projecting form containing windows that rises from the ground or from some other support, such as a porch roof; see also oriel.
Block Plan: A drawing of a building’s foot print within an entire block in simplified, non-detailed form.
Bracket: A projecting angled or curved form used as a support, found in conjunction with balconies, lintels, pediments, cornices, etc.
Brick Kneeler: In a gable, the sloped-top, level-bedded stone which supports the inclined coping.
Brick Molding: A milled wood trim piece covering the gap between the window frame and masonry, which can be rectilinear, curved, or composite-curved.
Building Plan: A drawing that shows a horizontal view
Cantilever: A beam or other projection that is unsupported at one end.
Cap flashing: A waterproof sheet that seals the tops of cornices and walls.
Capital: The topmost member, usually decorated, of a column or pilaster.
Casement: A window sash that is hinged on the side.
Champfer: a symmetrical sloping surface at an edge or corner.
Coffer: A coffer (or coffering) in architecture, is a sunken panel in the shape of a square, rectangle, or octagon in a ceiling, soffit or vault.
Coping: A protective cap, top, or cover of a wall parapet, commonly sloping to protect masonry from water.
Corbelling: A bracket of stone, wood, brick, or other building material, projecting from the face of a wall and generally used to support a cornice or arch.
Cornice: A molding or ornamentation that projects from the top of a building.
Crenelation: A wall at the top of a fortified building with regular gaps allowing defenders to shoot from. Also known as battlement.
Cupola: A small, domed structure on top of a roof.
Curtain Wall: A non-structural exterior wall, usually of glass and steel.
Dome: A vaulted structure with an elliptical plan, usually a cross-section of a sphere, used to distribute an equal thrust in all directions.
Dormer: A window in a small, often gabled structure set vertically on a sloping roof, allowing light to enter the attic.
Double hung: A type of window with two sash, each sliding on a vertical track.
Drum: A circular or polygonal wall which supports a dome or cupola.
Eave: The overhanging edge of a roof.
English bond: A pattern of brickwork with alternate courses of headers and stretchers.
Entrance recess: The recessed opening in the facade leading up to the doorway of a storefront or building entrance.
Façade: The main exterior face of a building, sometimes distinguished from the other faces by elaboration of architectural or ornamental details.
Fairfaced Concrete: A concrete surface that constitutes a design element or is intended to be exposed that requires no additional treatment other than sealing
Fanlight: A semicircular or semielliptical window above a door, usually inset with radiating glazing bars.
Fascia: A horizontal, flat element often combined with a cornice and architrave.
Fenestration: The arrangement, proportioning and design of windows in a building.
Finial: A sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure.
Flashing: Strips of sheet metal bent to fit the angle between any two roof surfaces or between the roof and any projection, such as a chimney.
Flemish bond: A pattern of brickwork in which each course consists of headers and stretchers laid alternately; each header is centred between the stretcher above and the stretcher below it
Floor Plan: A scaled drawing showing the horizontal arrangement of one level of the building that typically indicates walls, doors and dimensions
French door or French window: A tall casement window that reaches to the floor, usually arranged in two leaves as a double door.
Gable: The triangular section of a wall on the side of a building with a double-pitched roof.
Gargoyle: A grotesquely carved figure that serves as a spout to carry water from a gutter away from the building.
Gazebo: A freestanding ornamental pavilion – often at the top of a hill in a garden – that provides a view over the area.
Galvanized Iron: Iron that has been coated with zinc to inhibit rusting.
Glazing: The material, usually glass, that fills spaces between sash members (rails, stiles and muntins), commonly referred to as panes or lights.
Grille: A decorative, openwork grating, usually of iron, used to protect a window, door, or other opening.
Gutter: A shallow channel of metal or wood set immediately below and along the eaves of a building to catch and carry off rainwater.
Head: The upper horizontal part of a window frame or window opening.
Header: A masonry wall unit of brick which is laid so that its short end is exposed.
Historic Fabric: A building’s original or significant historic façade construction material or ornament, or fragments thereof.
Jamb: The side parts of a window frame or window opening, as distinct from head and sill.
Joist: One of a series of parallel timber beams used to support floor and ceiling loads, and supported in turn by larger beams, girders, or bearing walls; the widest dimension is vertically oriented.
Keystone: The central wedge-shaped stone at the crown of an arch that locks all parts together.
Lintel: A horizontal structural element over an opening which carries the weight of the wall above it.
Lunette: The half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting.
Mansard: a roof which has four sloping sides, each of which becomes steeper halfway down.
Modillion: A projecting scroll-shaped bracket or simple horizontal block arranged in series under the soffit of a cornice.
Molding: A piece of trim that introduces varieties of outline or curved contours in edges or surfaces as on window jambs and heads. Moldings are generally divided into three categories: rectilinear, curved and composite-curved.
Mullion: A vertical primary framing member that separates paired or multiple windows within a single opening.
Muntin: A tertiary framing member that subdivides the sash into individual panes, lights or panels. Note: Grids placed between two sheets of glass are not considered muntins.
Newel: The main post at the foot of a stairway or stoop.
Oriel: A projecting bay window on an upper floor.
Palladian Window: A three-part window opening with a tall, round-arched center window flanked by smaller rectangular windows and separated by posts or pilasters.
Parapet: A low wall that serves as a vertical barrier at the edge of a roof, terrace, or other raised area; in an exterior wall, the part entirely above the roof.
Pediment: The triangular space forming the gable end of a roof above the horizontal cornice or an ornamental gable, usually triangular, above a door or window.
Pier: A column designed to support a concentrated load or a member, usually in the form of a thickened section, which forms an integral part of a wall; usually placed at intervals along the wall to provide lateral support or to take concentrated vertical loads.
Pilaster: An engaged pier or pillar, often with capital and base.
Pitched: Sloping, especially referring to a roof.
Plinth: A platform base supporting a column or pilaster.
Pointing: The treatment of joints between bricks, stone, or other masonry components by filling with mortar; also, called tuck-pointing.
Portico: A small porch composed of a roof supported by columns, often found in front of a doorway.
Pointed Arch: An arch with a pointed crown, typically seen in Gothic architecture.
Portico: A roofed porch usually supported by columns, often leading to the entrance of the building.
Quatrefoil: A decorative element shaped in the form of four leaves.
Quoin: A structural form, usually of masonry, used at the corners of a building for the purpose of reinforcement, frequently imitated for decorative purposes.
Rail: A horizontal sash member.
Reinforced Concrete: Concrete containing steel rods or metal netting to increase its tensile strength
Relief: Carved or molded ornament that projects from a flat surface.
Return: The part of a molding cornice, or wall surface that changes direction, usually at a right angle, toward the building wall.
Reveal: The side of an opening for a door or window between the frame and the outer surface of a wall, showing the wall’s thickness.
Sash: The secondary part of a window which holds the glazing in place; may be operable or fixed; usually constructed of horizontal and vertical members; sash may be subdivided with muntins.
Shingle: A unit composed of wood, cement, asphalt compound, slate, tile or the like, employed in an overlapping series to cover roofs and walls.
Sidelight: A vertically framed area of fixed glass, often subdivided into panes, flanking a door.
Sill: The lower horizontal part of a window frame or window opening; also the accessory member which extends as a weather barrier from frame to outside face of wall or the horizontal member at the bottom of a window or door.
Soffit: The exposed underside of any architectural element, especially a roof or the underside of a structural component such as a beam, arch, or recessed area.
Spalling: The chipping or erosion of masonry caused by abuse or weathering.
Spandrel: A panel between the top of one window and the sill of another window on the story directly above it; or an irregular, triangular wall segment adjacent to an arched opening.
Steeple: A tall ornamental structure, usually surmounting a tower and ending in a spire.
Stretcher: A masonry unit or brick laid horizontally with its length parallel to the wall.
Stringcourse: A narrow horizontal band of masonry, extending across the façade, which can be flush or projecting, and flat surfaced, molded, or richly carved.
Stucco: A coating for exterior walls made from Portland cement, lime, sand, and water
Surround: The ornamental frame of a door or window.
Terracotta: Clay material that has been molded and fired, often used for building ornaments or cladding. Also written terra cotta or terra-cotta.
Tie rod: A metal tension rod connecting two structural members, such as gable walls or beams, acting as a brace or reinforcement; often anchored by means of a metal plate in such forms as an “S” or a star.
Transom: transverse horizontal structural beam or bar, or a crosspiece separating a door from a window above it
Tuck-Pointing: See pointing.
Turret: A small tower projected on a building.
Wrought Iron: Iron that is worked by being forged or hammered.