29 January 2014 .

Architrave: In classical architecture it is a main beam resting across the tops of columns or it is the moulded frame around a doorway or window.


Awning: A metal frame clad with fabric attached over a window, door, porch opening or storefront to provide protection from the weather.


Baluster: One of a series of short vertical posts, often ornamental, used to support a rail.


Balustrade: A railing with supporting balusters.


Bay: A regularly repeating division of a façade, marked by fenestration.


Bay Window: A projecting form containing windows that rises from the ground or from some other support, such as a porch roof; see also oriel.


Block Plan: A drawing of a building’s foot print within an entire block in simplified, non-detailed form.


Bracket: A projecting angled or curved form used as a support, found in conjunction with balconies, lintels, pediments, cornices, etc.


Brick Kneeler: In a gable, the sloped-top, level-bedded stone which supports the inclined coping.


Brick Molding: A milled wood trim piece covering the gap between the window frame and masonry, which can be rectilinear, curved, or composite-curved.


Building Plan: A drawing that shows a horizontal view


Cantilever: A beam or other projection that is unsupported at one end.


Cap flashing: A waterproof sheet that seals the tops of cornices and walls.


Capital: The topmost member, usually decorated, of a column or pilaster.


Casement: A window sash that is hinged on the side.


Champfer: a symmetrical sloping surface at an edge or corner.


Coffer: A coffer (or coffering) in architecture, is a sunken panel in the shape of a square, rectangle, or octagon in a ceiling, soffit or vault.


Coping: A protective cap, top, or cover of a wall parapet, commonly sloping to protect masonry from water.


Corbelling: A bracket of stone, wood, brick, or other building material, projecting from the face of a wall and generally used to support a cornice or arch.


Cornice: A molding or ornamentation that projects from the top of a building.


Crenelation: A wall at the top of a fortified building with regular gaps allowing defenders to shoot from.  Also known as battlement.


Cupola: A small, domed structure on top of a roof.


Curtain Wall: A non-structural exterior wall, usually of glass and steel.


Dome: A vaulted structure with an elliptical plan, usually a cross-section of a sphere, used to distribute an equal thrust in all directions.


Dormer: A window in a small, often gabled structure set vertically on a sloping roof, allowing light to enter the attic.


Double hung: A type of window with two sash, each sliding on a vertical track.


Drum: A circular or polygonal wall which supports a dome or cupola.


Eave: The overhanging edge of a roof.


English bond: A pattern of brickwork with alternate courses of headers and stretchers.


Entrance recess: The recessed opening in the facade leading up to the doorway of a storefront or building entrance.


Façade: The main exterior face of a building, sometimes distinguished from the other faces by elaboration of architectural or ornamental details.


Fairfaced Concrete: A concrete surface that constitutes a design element or is intended to be exposed that requires no additional treatment other than sealing


Fanlight: A semicircular or semielliptical window above a door, usually inset with radiating glazing bars.


Fascia: A horizontal, flat element often combined with a cornice and architrave.


Fenestration: The arrangement, proportioning and design of windows in a building.


Finial: A sculptured ornament fixed to the top of a peak, arch, gable or similar structure.


Flashing: Strips of sheet metal bent to fit the angle between any two roof surfaces or between the roof and any projection, such as a chimney.


Flemish bond: A pattern of brickwork in which each course consists of headers and stretchers laid alternately; each header is centred between the stretcher above and the stretcher below it


Floor Plan: A scaled drawing showing the horizontal arrangement of one level of the building that typically indicates walls, doors and dimensions


French door or French window: A tall casement window that reaches to the floor, usually arranged in two leaves as a double door.


Gable: The triangular section of a wall on the side of a building with a double-pitched roof.


Gargoyle: A grotesquely carved figure that serves as a spout to carry water from a gutter away from the building.


Gazebo: A freestanding ornamental pavilion – often at the top of a hill in a garden – that provides a view over the area.


Galvanized Iron: Iron that has been coated with zinc to inhibit rusting.


Glazing: The material, usually glass, that fills spaces between sash members (rails, stiles and muntins), commonly referred to as panes or lights.


Grille: A decorative, openwork grating, usually of iron, used to protect a window, door, or other opening.


Gutter: A shallow channel of metal or wood set immediately below and along the eaves of a building to catch and carry off rainwater.


Head: The upper horizontal part of a window frame or window opening.


Header: A masonry wall unit of brick which is laid so that its short end is exposed.


Historic Fabric: A building’s original or significant historic façade construction material or ornament, or fragments thereof.


Jamb: The side parts of a window frame or window opening, as distinct from head and sill.


Joist: One of a series of parallel timber beams used to support floor and ceiling loads, and supported in turn by larger beams, girders, or bearing walls; the widest dimension is vertically oriented.


Keystone: The central wedge-shaped stone at the crown of an arch that locks all parts together.


Lintel: A horizontal structural element over an opening which carries the weight of the wall above it.


Lunette: The half-moon shaped space framed by an arch, often containing a window or painting.


Mansard: a roof which has four sloping sides, each of which becomes steeper halfway down.


Modillion: A projecting scroll-shaped bracket or simple horizontal block arranged in series under the soffit of a cornice.


Molding: A piece of trim that introduces varieties of outline or curved contours in edges or surfaces as on window jambs and heads. Moldings are generally divided into three categories: rectilinear, curved and composite-curved.


Mullion: A vertical primary framing member that separates paired or multiple windows within a single opening.


Muntin: A tertiary framing member that subdivides the sash into individual panes, lights or panels. Note: Grids placed between two sheets of glass are not considered muntins.


Newel: The main post at the foot of a stairway or stoop.


Oriel: A projecting bay window on an upper floor.


Palladian Window: A three-part window opening with a tall, round-arched center window flanked by smaller rectangular windows and separated by posts or pilasters.


Parapet: A low wall that serves as a vertical barrier at the edge of a roof, terrace, or other raised area; in an exterior wall, the part entirely above the roof.


Pediment: The triangular space forming the gable end of a roof above the horizontal cornice or an ornamental gable, usually triangular, above a door or window.


Pier: A column designed to support a concentrated load or a member, usually in the form of a thickened section, which forms an integral part of a wall; usually placed at intervals along the wall to provide lateral support or to take concentrated vertical loads.


Pilaster: An engaged pier or pillar, often with capital and base.


Pitched: Sloping, especially referring to a roof.


Plinth: A platform base supporting a column or pilaster.


Pointing: The treatment of joints between bricks, stone, or other masonry components by filling with mortar; also, called tuck-pointing.


Portico: A small porch composed of a roof supported by columns, often found in front of a doorway.


Pointed Arch: An arch with a pointed crown, typically seen in Gothic architecture.


Portico: A roofed porch usually supported by columns, often leading to the entrance of the building.


Quatrefoil: A decorative element shaped in the form of four leaves.


Quoin: A structural form, usually of masonry, used at the corners of a building for the purpose of reinforcement, frequently imitated for decorative purposes.


Rail: A horizontal sash member.


Reinforced Concrete: Concrete containing steel rods or metal netting to increase its tensile strength


Relief: Carved or molded ornament that projects from a flat surface.


Return: The part of a molding cornice, or wall surface that changes direction, usually at a right angle, toward the building wall.


Reveal: The side of an opening for a door or window between the frame and the outer surface of a wall, showing the wall’s thickness.


Sash: The secondary part of a window which holds the glazing in place; may be operable or fixed; usually constructed of horizontal and vertical members; sash may be subdivided with muntins.


Shingle: A unit composed of wood, cement, asphalt compound, slate, tile or the like, employed in an overlapping series to cover roofs and walls.


Sidelight: A vertically framed area of fixed glass, often subdivided into panes, flanking a door.


Sill: The lower horizontal part of a window frame or window opening; also the accessory member which extends as a weather barrier from frame to outside face of wall or the horizontal member at the bottom of a window or door.


Soffit: The exposed underside of any architectural element, especially a roof or the underside of a structural component such as a beam, arch, or recessed area.


Spalling: The chipping or erosion of masonry caused by abuse or weathering.


Spandrel: A panel between the top of one window and the sill of another window on the story directly above it; or an irregular, triangular wall segment adjacent to an arched opening.


Steeple: A tall ornamental structure, usually surmounting a tower and ending in a spire.


Stretcher: A masonry unit or brick laid horizontally with its length parallel to the wall.


Stringcourse: A narrow horizontal band of masonry, extending across the façade, which can be flush or projecting, and flat surfaced, molded, or richly carved.


Stucco: A coating for exterior walls made from Portland cement, lime, sand, and water


Surround: The ornamental frame of a door or window.


Terracotta: Clay material that has been molded and fired, often used for building ornaments or cladding. Also written terra cotta or terra-cotta.


Tie rod: A metal tension rod connecting two structural members, such as gable walls or beams, acting as a brace or reinforcement; often anchored by means of a metal plate in such forms as an “S” or a star.


Transom:  transverse horizontal structural beam or bar, or a crosspiece separating a door from a window above it


Tuck-Pointing: See pointing.


Turret: A small tower projected on a building.


Wrought Iron: Iron that is worked by being forged or hammered.




Comments are closed.